These are research degrees with the emphasis being on original research leading to a dissertation, and peer reviewed publications. Students are admitted to these programs based on the performance in their previous degrees, their performance in GATE and mainly, on their performance in a technical interview with a committee comprising members of the department faculty. Each student undergoes a research training program (RTP) that is defined by the student's research advisor. Following the RTP the student is expected to clear a comprehensive examination (comprising a seminar and oral questions on the RTP). Finally, the student submits a dissertation that is peer reviewed by experts outside the department (in the case of a Ph.D. thesis the examiners are from outside the Institute). Finally, the candidate defends the dissertation by making a presentation before a defence committee.